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Hairdressing as an occupation dates back thousands of years. Ancient art drawings and paintings have been discovered depicting people working on another person's hair. Greek writers Aristophanes and Homer both mention hairdressing in their writings. In Africa, it was believed in some cultures that a person's spirit occupied his or her hair, giving hairdressers high status within these communities. The status of hairdressing encouraged many to develop their skills, and close relationships were built between hairdressers and their clients. Hours would be spent washingcombing, oiling, styling and ornamenting their hair. Men would work specifically on men, and women on other women. Before a master hairdresser died, they would give their combs and tools to a chosen successor during a special ceremony.[1]

In ancient Egypt, hairdressers had specially decorated cases to hold their tools, including lotions, scissors and styling materials. Barbers also worked as hairdressers, and wealthy men often had personal barbers within their home. With the standard of wig wearing within the culture, wigmakers were also trained as hairdressers. In ancient Rome and Greece household slaves and servants took on the role of hairdressers, including dyeing and shaving. Men who did not have their own private hair or shaving services would visit the local barbershop. Women had their hair maintained and groomed at their homes. Historical documentation is lacking regarding hairstylists from the 5th century until the 14th century. Hair care service grew in demand after a papal decree in 1092 demanded that all Roman Catholic clergymen remove their facial hair.[1], Hairdressing, custom of cutting and arranging the hair, practiced by men and women from ancient times to the present. Early records indicate that the ancient Assyrians wore elaborate curly hair styles; by contrast, the ancient Egyptians, men and women alike, shaved their heads and wore wigs. Whether ornate or simple, hairdressing has been employed by very nearly every society. In 400 BC some Greek women dyed their hair; in the Roman period dying and bleaching were common. Japanese women used lacquer (a precursor of modern-day hair spray) to secure their elaborate coiffures. The wig has come in and gone out of vogue throughout history. Beginning with the crude curling iron used by women of ancient Rome in creating their elaborate hair styles, hairdressing came to be associated with a variety of technological accoutrements, ranging from simple combs and hairpins to hold the hair in place to complex electrical appliances for drying and grooming the hair and chemical processes to tint, wave, curl, straighten, and condition the hair. By the 20th century, hairdressing itself and the manufacture of materials and equipment had become an occupation and practical art of large proportions

Beauty industry has become a billion dollar global industry, encompassing skin and hair care, cosmetic surgery, health clubs and diet pills. Americans are found to spend more on beauty than on education every year. In the modern world, the perception of beauty has changed to many people. It is observed that a woman’s attractiveness ranks her to be the on the top in a man’s list. It wouldn’t be wrong if we say that this is the era of the “survival of the prettiest”. Beauty therapy is in fact perceived as a necessity. People are judged on the basis of their attractiveness and are expected to be better in different fields of their lives. “Restore and renew” is the policy of beauty industry, where it not only helps to restore and renew the appearance of a person, but builds up equidistant confidence and ravishing personality.

Beauty industry has been a rapid development, as it is accounted for improving the living standards of the people. In this fast-paced lifestyle, people have realized the need of spending their money and time on themselves, and to improve their appearance. People like to look and feel their best. Beauty salon, spas and beauty industries have become an antidote of all the frustrations, tensions and controversies. The spa industry is the fourth largest leisure industry in the United States as there are about 3.32 million active spa-goers in the U.S.

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